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Thanks to the large variety of types, there's a lot of variation in these mechanisms' components. Generally, the system consists of an outer shell and an entry and exit point for the fluid. The fluid then activates an actuator through a vane or gear.
The last component is generally a rotor or piston that connects to the rest of the vehicle. Most systems also have a cleaning plate, which allows for easy access for maintenance purposes.
Hydraulic motors are mechanisms that convert hydraulic pressure into torque or rotation. The system takes liquid energy and converts it into mechanical energy so your equipment can fulfill its task. Depending on the type of motor, your device may turn either a rotor or piston.
Despite their apparent complexity, these types of mechanisms are simple tools at heart. Much like a windmill or waterwheel, hydraulic motors rely on the application of pressure to move components. That mechanism then turns a rotor or moves a piston to make the energy usable.
In brief, the hydraulic pump applies pressure by pumping fluid to the motor, which converts the liquid to usable mechanical energy.
Any time a motor doesn't operate efficiently, it puts extra strain on your machine's other parts. A faulty mechanism may manifest in any number of ways.
You may notice that your vehicle is experiencing unusual amounts of strain and sounds like it's working very hard. Additionally, you may see that the machine moves slowly or doesn't complete regular tasks with its usual ease.
If the mechanism is severely faulty, it may not work at all.
In this case, your vehicle won't leave you guessing when it's time to replace the mechanism. In rare cases, it may be possible to repair a specific part of the motor.
However, typically when your motor stops working or starts turning slowly, you'll need to replace the motor.
You don't have many choices as far as motors go unless you're willing to change your vehicle's entire mechanical system. You should only ever replace the component with the same type of mechanism it held previously.
There are multiple different types of hydraulic motor, and each serves another purpose.
Gear and vane motors are straightforward, inexpensive mechanisms used in many different vehicles.
Gerotor motors have one less tooth to the gear than it does to the rotor.
Radial piston motors are a variation of an old mechanical design and very versatile. These devices rely on the up and down motions of pistons.
Axial plunger motors are the most commonly used type in hydraulics. The motor output can be regulated by the addition or subtraction of gears, making it a versatile choice.